Sunday, 6 September 2015

HTML-tutorial for beginners

HTML
   Creating web pages using HTML is the simplest method. HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML). This is basically a scripting language. HTML is a subset of SGML(Standard General Markup Language).

History of HTML

Tim Berners-Lee is the person who defined HTML. In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee was working at CERN(European Organization for Nuclear Research). He included the elements that could define title, paragraphs, hyperlink,headings, simple lists,address blocks and so on. But in that version of HTML there was no facility for producing tables or fill-in forms and images within a document.
Tim Berners-Lee
In 1994, Tim Berners-Lee launched the World Wide Web Consortium(W3C) for producing standards for Web Technologies.
W3C also defined the standards for HTML. As an outcome of W3C’s effort HTML 2.0 was adopted web standard within it.
The W3C released its HTML 4 recommendations in December 1997. The current version HTML 4.01 which is now followed for producing web documents.
The meta language used to define the syntax for HTML 4.01 is SGML.
In 1998. the W3C introduced the EXtensible Markup Language (XML) which is a restricted version of SGML. Then a new version of HTML came up, which is called XHTML(eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language). The Syntaxes of XHTML are defined using XML, rather than SGML.

HTML basics

As we know HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language.
Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link.
Markup Language is language of writing information within documents.
Basically an HTML document is a plain text file. It contains rich text. The rich text means text with tags.
The HTML program can be written in a notepad or wordpad, i prefer notepad++ because it will be easy to edit.
The extension to this program is .html or .htm , this program can be opened in any web browsers.
Let us create a basic Hello World program in HTML,
The program consists of strings within a closed brackets. Such strings are called tags.
The HTML program should written within <HTML> and </HTML>.
  Let we start writing our first HTML program.
Open the notepad and type the following code.
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>
MY FIRST WEB PAGE
</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
HELLO WORLD
</BODY>
</HTML>
notepad
Now save the file as hello.html
save
image
after saving the file check it out how it appears
file
Then double click it to view the output
output
The title appears due to the tags head and title
<head>
<title>
MY FIRST WEB PAGE
</title>
</head>
output
the HELLO WORLD appears due to the body tag
<body> HELLO WORLD </body>
The HTML program must be written within the tags
<HTML>
………
……..
……..
</HTML>
These are the basics of an HTML program we can learn HTML features in upcoming tutorials.
HTML ELEMENTS
In the above example, the character set enclosed within    < > is basically called an element.
The element tree can be seen below:

element
See you at next tutorial….